Private Choices & Public Health – The AIDS Epidemic in an Economic Perspective
Knowing the level of spending of governments is the first step in examining the ability to sustain a response to the HIV pandemic. The UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS was signed by 189 countries agreeing to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halting and beginning to reverse the HIV/AIDS pandemic by 2015. The project of which this book is a part of is aimed at developing a comprehensive framework for health and non-health public expenditures to confront the HIV pandemic. The objective is twofold; to identify determinants for the domestic public expenditures on HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries, and to predict the domestic public expenditures on HIV and AIDS. The model is based on information from the National AIDS Spending Assessments at the country level. It considers the impact of demographic and non-demographic variables for both health and non-health expenditures(education, advocacy and policy development, the judiciary system and human rights). The results are meant to provide essential empirical information on financial resources available for responding to the HIV and AIDS pandemic.
This study is about how donor policy, NGO policy and public policy work together in Ghana’s national strategic response to HIV and AIDS. It touches on two areas of public policy - development policy and health policy specifically relating to HIV/AIDS to determine congruity of public, donor and NGO policies. Based on a survey done in Accra, Ghana in summer 2010 and on documentary sources of data collection, the study captures areas of agreement and disagreement in the three policy streams and discusses their effects on policy implementation. In broader terms, it analyzes assistance for HIV/AIDS in the context of international development aid and how current economic realities make such assistance unsustainable in the long term. It concludes by elaborating a prescriptive model of HIV policy intervention in Ghana with proposed modifications of the current model. This book illuminates the field of HID/AIDS policy making in Ghana in a manner that students of public health and public policy as well as officials from public, private and donor agencies working in the area of public health will find insightful.
HIV/AIDS continues to wreck havoc in all aspects of human life in Africa. Since medically there is still no cure for AIDS, the role of education has become the singular tool for both prevention and understanding of the disease. Health education approaches hold promise for minimizing the effects of HIV/AIDS on families, communities and nations. This book therefore provides the adult educator, health educator, community health educator and public health practitioner approaches to engage communities in learning to change their sexual practices to fight the increasing menace of HIV/AIDS in contemporary African societies. Health anthropologists,Cultural and Religious scholars, Gender advocates, Health educators, Adult educators, Community Development and Social workers will find this book valuable in their work with communities coping with the devastation of HIV/AIDS. Introductory college courses in public health, community health, and adult learning will benefit immensely from this book.
This text provides students a foundation in public health practice and management, focusing on developing the knowledge and skills required by the real world of public health. The authors of Transforming Public Health Practice explain the drivers of change in public health practice, key success factors for public health programs, dealing with the chronic disease burden, the impact of national health policy on public health practice, and tools for understanding and managing population health. Transforming Public Health Practice covers core leadership and management skills, covering areas such as politics, workforce, partnership and collaboration, change management, outcomes orientation, opportunities for improvement, health equity, and future challenges. Case studies highlight innovations in health education, working with people with disabilities, partnerships in response to disease outbreaks, and health programs. Learning objectives, chapter summaries, key terms, and discussion questions enhance each chapter. A downloadable instructors' supplement is available on the companion Web site for the book.
There is a moderate positive correlation between media agenda and public agenda on overall ten main national issues—'terrorism', 'energy crisis', 'economic crisis', 'corruption', 'Indo-Pak relations', 'US-Drone attacks', 'Pak-Taliban talks', 'education', 'unemployment' and 'health' during the phase of Parliamentary General Elections 2013 in Pakistan. On the other hand, it is found a significant strong positive correlation only on four out of ten national issues-'terrorism', 'energy crisis', 'US-drone attacks', and 'economic crisis' within media agenda and public agenda. Among all national issues-'terrorism' is considered significantly correlated in media agenda and public agenda. To explore the media agenda on national issues, the coverage of national press about the most important ten issues is examined through content analysis at the front and back pages of three leading national popular Urdu dailies of Pakistan; Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt and Express whereas public perception is evaluated through opinion surveys from 300 respondents.
Millions of people in East Africa are suffering from overlapped public health challenges of humanitarian crisis (natural and human-made) and HIV/AIDS pandemic. Public Health Programs on both challenges lack integration that is a missed opportunity. Thus,humanitarian and HIV/AIDS programs based on countries context in East Africa need to be integrated so as to be efficient and effective to address the challenges.
India’s large public health care is unique in itself. Primary health care is provided through a network of sub-centers, primary health care centers, community health centers and district hospitals. Inspite of vast infrastructure Government is able to cater only 20% of the population, while 80% of healthcare needs are still being provided by the private sector.The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been launched on 12th April 2005 by the Government of India. NRHM decentralize financial resources to local governments and uses a social audit framework to monitor its implementation. This is a true architectural change to realize health for all with equity and justice. There is great need for community health care of people living in economically challenged circumstances. The improvement of NRHM is needed in states like Odisha where near about half of people live bellow official poverty line. This book provides scope and opportunity for program implementation, evaluation, monitoring and research especially for health care administrator, public policy maker, health psychologists & sociologists and researchers.
Biological structure of female and cultural construct of gender injustice, women and girl-children are much more vulnerable to health risks such as HIV-AIDS, anaemia, PEM, reproductive tract infections etc. Their domestic and economic burdens, lack of decision making capacity, social stigma, altogether hamper easy accessibility to health delivery, both preventive and curative. The blow of dreaded diseases such as HIV-AIDS and social injustice on the fair-sex is very unfair. In-depth study on the gender dimension of HIV-AIDS in one of the most HIV-AIDS affected state of India throws light on the issue ‘Gender and HIV-AIDS’. This concise capsule is a rare ingredient of the synergistic chemistry of personalities of different backgrounds synthesizing specially for social scientists, students, scholars, health professionals and general readers.
Since the first diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s, the disease has had far reaching consequences in in political arena, both at state and sub-state level policy arena and at international relations level. This work, Reconciling Public Health and Human Rights, recognizes the magnitude of HIV/AIDS in Africa and Globally as a public health issue. It analyses the human rights implications that the public health dimensions of HIV/AIDS and the consequences have on policies that are adopted by the states. It specifically focuses on the human rights issues particularly with regard to overseas travels, domestic movements, as well as the right to treatment. Other practices that raise fundamental human rights questions that the book analyses include quarantine,compulsory screening,criminalization of the disease. The writer argues that policies that raise fundamental human rights questions are ineffective in handling HIV/AIDS, and are often counter-productive.